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Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur

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Joined: 14 Jul 2012
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    Posted: 14 Jul 2012 at 4:59pm

Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur descended from his father’s side in the 5th generation from Timur and through his mother in the 15th generation from Chenghiz Khan.

Reasons from Babur’s Indian expedition:-

1.       The ottomans defeated the Safavids and the Uzbeks controlled Trans Oxiana forcing Babur’s imperial impulses towards India.

2.       Meager income of Kabul

3.       Desire to emulate Timur

4.       Punjab was a part of Timurid province and hence was considered as  a legal patrimony of the Timurids

5.       Apprehension of Uzbek attacks

6.       He was invited to attack India by Daulat Kahan Lodhi, Subedar of Punjab; Ibhrahim Lodhi’s uncle Alamkhan Lodi and Rana Sanga

7.       He was successful in his 5th expedition. In the Battle of Panipat 20th April 1526, he finally defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. Babur was the first one to entitle himself as the ‘Padshah’

Initial and Important Battles of Babur in India :-

1.       Battle of Panipat (1526) – Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi

2.       Battle of Khanwal (1527) – Babur defeated Rana Sanga

3.       Battle of Chanderi (1528) – Babur defeated Medini Rai.

He wrote “Tuzuk-I-Baburi” or Baburnama in Turkish. It was transalated into Perssian by Abdur Rahim Kahn-i-Khanan. Other works include “Masnavi”

Significance:-

After the Kushanas, Babur was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the Indian empire, which provided stability since it was the staging post of invasions of India. This helped in promoting trade since these towns were the starting points of caravans meant of China in the east and Mediterranean in the west.  He smashed Lodi and Rajput power destroying the balance of power which paved a way for an empire. New mode of warfare was introduced with combination of artillery and cavalry. He restored the prestige of the crown after Feroz Shah Tughlaq.

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